Why are blossoms never dirty and can we also make our cars that way? Why can geckos walk on the ceiling and can we use their tricks to create better adhesives? Why is the spider’s web tougher than steel? Exciting new developments in computer technology, chemistry and physics are now enabling us to understand Nature’s designs better than ever before. Scientists are not simply trying to copy nature – they are taking hints, extracting principles and applying winning designs of evolution in a new, human context.