Documenting NASA's Phoenix mission to search for water on Mars and determine whether the planet may have sustained life in the past.
Imagine a world where sea levels have risen by 20 feet. Cities flood and coastal regions disappear. Travel to Greenland where scientists are investigating if this nightmare could become a reality.
One day technological advances may allow us to relocate to other planets. Journey through the solar system to discover what we would find and how these alien planets compare with our own.
Is it possible to stop a hurricane? Some scientists think it is.We have chosen seven scientists and inventors who will pitch their theories, and we observe a real mega-storm bearing down on the Gulf Coast. Intercutting between hurricane footage, experiments, small-scale trials and computer animation, the seven innovators present how their plans would stop, stall, weaken or divert a future hurricane before it can make landfall on a major coastal city.
Imagine a world frozen solid. Imagine that vast sheets of ice hundreds of feet thick encased the entire planet--a giant snowball floating through space. This is not some exotic new world deep in space. It may be our world, the Earth. Some top-ranking scientists believe that in the past the Earth froze over completely for millions of years... then warmed up rapidly over 600 million years ago. Struggling against skepticism and disbelief for years, they have gathered a growing body of evidence that explains many mysteries, and others in the scientific community are slowly coming around to the extraordinary idea not just of the dramatic freeze, but of an equally dramatic thaw. Naked Science explores what may have been the most extreme period of Earths climatic history, Meeting all the major players of this controversial theory that is Snowball Earth.
Why do some buildings collapse during earthquakes? Meet the man who may have made a breakthrough in predicting earthquakes and hear the compelling stories from survivors and rescuers.
Local scientists try to ascertain the cause of a series of worsening quakes in Reno, Nevada.
Imagine a world where sea levels have risen by 20 feet. Cities flood and coastal regions disappear. Travel to Greenland where scientists are investigating if this nightmare could become a reality.
Is Mount Vesuvius set for another enormous eruption? Explore the alarming evidence helping to forecast the mighty volcano's future activity.
Scientists believe that our universe started with a colossal explosion called the Big Bang. That powerful blast created all the matter and energy in the universe and laid the groundwork for every explosion since.
How did life begin? its one of the most fundamental and difficult questions that has challenged us for ages. Our planet is teaming with life, from the highest mountain to the deepest ocean; life is everywhere. But what was the firing pistol that started the evolutionary race? How did material go from non-living to alive?
In 250 million years, Earth may be a single supercontinent. Scientists believe a future single landmass world could destroy all life.
America once was ravaged by some of the largest, most destructive hurricanes ever. Are these mega-storms poised to return, targeting the heavily populated eastern coastline?
Many serious scientists believe that time travel is inevitable, but travelling into the past raises difficult issues. Could we change history?
Scientists are uncovering ways in which the sun dictates our climate. Could the sun be the key to saving the Earth from global warming? Plus, could solar wind be more important than we ever realised?
The Hubble Space Telescope can see to the far reaching corners of the galaxy and is one of the most important scientific instruments ever built, but can it unlock the secrets of the universe?
On a single day on a single street, with the DNA of just a couple of hundred random people, National Geographic Channel sets out to trace the ancestral footsteps of all humanity. Narrated by Kevin Bacon, The Human Family Tree travels to one of the most diverse corners of the world -- Queens, N.Y. -- to demonstrate how we all share common ancestors who embarked on very different journeys. Regardless of race, nationality or religion, all of us can trace our ancient origin back to the cradle of humanity, East Africa. What did our collective journey look like, and where did it take your specific ancestors? At what point in our past did we first cross paths with the supposed strangers living in our neighborhood? Now, in The Human Family Tree, the people of this quintessential American melting pot find out that their connections go much deeper than a common ZIP code.
More humans have traveled to the moon that have been to the ocean's floor. Virtually unexplored, the trenches of the oceans could swallow Mt. Everest. Despite the crushing pressure, Earth's final frontier holds great potential for meeting the planet's energy needs and perhaps to cure diseases.
An untold number of asteroids have slammed into Earth over millions of years. Scientists are now monitoring the skies watching for the next 'big one', and considering options on how to prevent the next major impact.
National Geographic Naked Science presents "Super Volcano", the inside documentary of what might happen if the Yellowstone Caldera were to erupt one day. This documentary includes a Yellowstone timeline of past eruptions, how Yellowstone would affect the world, and what impact will it be for the U.S.
The science of earthquakes is examined in this episode. Archival footage highlights damage from the great 1906 quake in San Francisco, as well as 1964's deadly quake in Alaska. Despite efforts to 'quake-proof' bulidings, some simply don't survive; why this happens is explained. Also discussed are tsunamis, caused by undersea earthquakes, and the threat they pose to coasts worldwide. Efforts by scientists to predict earthquakes are also investigated.
The general belief is that Druids built the ancient circle of stones. Recent archeological discoveries and new technologies reveal Stonehenge to have been built long before Druids arrived. Did the technology to build such a structure exist 4000 years ago?
Experts compare the deadliness of bull, white, and tiger sharks, as well as profile their biology and behavior. The cause of shark attacks and what can be done to prevent them is discussed. Since sharks generally cover territories of several hundreds of miles, efforts to rid them from particular beaches are usually unsucessful. Sharks also use their mouths to examine their surroundings and determine what is and isn't food, leading to many shark attacks against humans.
Several possible reasons for the Triangle's reputation as a danger zone are investigated. Scientists have discovered that the area's magnetic field has dropped considerably in the last 20 years. Could activity involving underwater volcanic vents be affecting the field and posing a threat to vessels? UFO's, as well as bizarre weather conditions, are also considered as possible explanations.
In 350 B.C. Plato wrote about an ancient civilization that disappeared in one day in a catastrophic event. Is the story simply a myth or have remains of a real Atlantis been discovered? This episode examines the city that Plato described and analyzes a four leading sites that present-day explorers believe could be the remains of the ancient city.
A mysterious crash in Roswell, NM during the 1940s convinced many that our planet is being visited by space aliens. Crop circles in Britain have only added fuel to the fire. Few scientists doubt that life indeed exists elsewhere, but some believe we're more likely to make contact via radio waves.
Some of the worst nature can offer is spawned from the skies above. Though their damage is concentrated, a tornado's strong winds can turn debris into deadly missiles. With hurricanes, a huge amount of energy is discharged over hundreds of miles causing widespread devastation. What are the precautions can we take to protect ourselves?
The story of human evolution traces the development of our species from our earliest ancestors through their mastery of tools and their environment. Through five million years, the essence of what it means to be human is analyzed.
The Earth's core is some 4000 miles beneath our feet. Beneath the rocky surface lies massive amounts of liquid metals that generate a protective magnetic field. That field shields the planet from dangerous space radiation. Without it, Earth would be as barren as Mars. But with the inner core cooling, is that scenario inevitable?
We have no natural defenses to the deadly extremes offered up by nature. Lightning bolts, excessive heat, severe cold, water, hail and wind are all examined for their respective threats to the human body.
Le grand requin blanc, le féroce requin tigre et le redoutable requin bouledogue constituent la hantise des baigneurs qui s'aventurent dans les eaux où rôdent ces monstres aux mâchoires d'acier. Les requins font partie des plus anciens prédateurs de notre planète. Un simple mouvement de l'eau suffit à les mettre en appétit mais il ne faut pas croire pour autant qu'ils foncent à tort et à travers sur le premier objet qui passe à leur portée et, s'ils s'en prennent aux hommes, ils se contentent le plus souvent de les mordre alors qu'ils ne font généralement qu'une bouchée d'un phoque ou d'une otarie. Pourquoi, dès lors, les requins attaquent-ils les hommes? Ce documentaire passionnant répond à cette fascinante question et fournit quelques conseils d'élémentaire prudence à ceux qui seraient tentés, malgré le danger, de pénétrer dans le territoire de chasse des requins mangeurs d'hommes.
The supposed ability of some individuals to mentally transmit and receive thoughts is examined in this hour. Unsubstantiated claims are not proof, so several experiments are conducted to put the phenomenon to the test. This includes exploring the telepathic connection that some twins claim to experience through a series of tests on one twin and recording the other twin's reaction, and a Ganzfeld test where a person in one room attempts to transmit mental pictures to another person in a different room.
Galeras, Fuego, St. Helens, Kilauea, Popocatepetl. These are names of currently active volcanoes. They all have the ability to end human life, destroy millions of dollars of property, and instill fear. Volcanoes are necessary to build mountains, create new geological features, and are, figuratively speaking, the veins of our planet. Despite the brilliance and vividness of volcanoes, there is an intensity that cannot be escaped. This intensity has caused the deaths of over 30,000 people in just the last two decades. That's why it's important for scientists to be able predict when a volcano will erupt. To get an idea as to what's happening beneath the surface, vocanologists measure the temperature and gas content of magma as it rises in underground chambers, as well as changes in the movement of the nearby surface. Their goal is to recognize all the predictable signs of an eruption and, like a jigsaw puzzle, put them all together into predictions that are accurate.
Even if we found the perfect Earth-like planet among the stars, how would we survive the trans-galactic journey? Scientists are working on making the mission to Mars and beyond a reality.
Two centuries of science has changed the bullet from a basic round ball into a highly-specialized form of ammunition. The advancements that have made modern-day bullets so efficient and deadly are examined.
Ever since the tragedy on December 2004 when huge waves pummeled the coastline of the Indian Ocean, people have been left with three questions: how, why, and what can we do to prevent it from happening again. The first is simple enough. However, the other two require more thought and initiative. The reasons may never be fully understood, but as human beings we have the ability to minimize or possibly even prevent the loss of human life should this merciless disaster ever strike again. Naked Science investigate what exactly the governments of the world are doing to get warnings out to people within hours, days, possibly weeks before one happens again. Scientists worldwide are for the first time working together to develop an understanding of the circumstances that take place to create tsunamis and consider what it takes to prevent the loss of human life and property.
An imaginary "human" time traveler takes us on a journey back to the moment our solar system was born 4.5 billion years ago and examines the natural forces that created Earth and the conditions necessary for life to exist.
Unlike many other natural disasters, landslides offer no real advance warning. Often triggered by heavy rainfall, landslides pose a danger to those who live in areas where humans have altered the local geography. In addition to video taken of landslides in progress, this episode highlights efforts being made to protect motorists from rocks and boulders falling onto roadways.
Are there actually strange creatures swimming in Loch Ness? This episode examines the photographic evidence and the many high tech attemps to gain proof of Nessie's existence. Using computers, the famous photos and films are analyzed and the results are less than convincing.
Has planet Earth ever had a close encounter with aliens? NGC explores significant UFO sightings, interstellar travel, whether ETs could survive on Earth, interspecies communication, alien abduction cases, and whether life on Earth originated in space.
The moon's effect on Earth has been considerable. It's gravitational pull may have made life on our planet possible. In more modern times, some think it affects our behavior. Still others think it causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
Naked Science investigates the perplexing science behind human sexual attraction. To solve the mystery of sexuality Naked Science explores all aspects of attraction such as the beating pulse, sweaty palms, hormone extravaganza, and nervousness.
It generates heat and sustains life on our planet. But like humans, the sun has a limited lifespan. As our star ages, it will become hotter and expand, evaporating all of our oceans and killing all life on planet Earth. Don't panic yet--we have a few billion years before this happens.
As odd as sounds, global warming may be rushing the planet into the next ice-age. The Big Freeze could come with no warning, resulting in a massive extinction of species and changing life on Earth. Is the next cold snap nearer than we think?
The Roman Empire may be ancient history, but its ingenuity is all around us. The Romans created everything from surgical instruments and window glass to plywood and concrete -- even bikini swimsuits.
In over 200 years of study, scientists are still unsure of what stimulates a lightning strike. One current theory suggests that cosmic rays could be the trigger. The odd phenomenon of ball lightning is examined, as well as recently discovered sprites that emanate upward from clouds and into the middle atmosphere.
The last great unexplored territory on Earth lies in the depths of the planet's oceans. The bottom of the sea is home to explosive volcanoes and massive earthquakes generating tsunamis that cause massive destruction along the coasts. These extreme depths are inhabited by large and long-lived creatures, many still unknown to science.
Explosives have gone from gunpowder to the A-bomb in relatively short order. The future may lie in the stuff of science-fiction: anti-matter. Scientists are currently at work on this even more powerful and deadly explosive force.
In the space of 500 years, eighteen of these huge monuments were built. Focusing more on the "who" than the "how" of their construction, forensic anthropology learns that it wasn't slaves that built the pyramids, as originally thought. The facilities that housed the workers have been unearthed, giving a clearer picture of the mammoth project that was pyramid building.
What will Earth look like in 250 million years? Explore the powerful forces deep below the Earth's surface that rip apart vast land masses and smash them together, creating everything from tsunamis and earthquakes to mountains and canyons.
This episode attepmts to answer the question, "Where did everything in space and on our planet come from?" Travel back to the very beginning of the universe when it all started. Also, astronomer Edwin Hubble offers his thoughts that the universe used to be much smaller than it is now.
Some dearly departed have had their bodies put into a deep freeze, hoping one day medicine will have a cure for what ailed them. Critics consider the use of cryonics to bring back the dead a fool-hearty idea. It's an unproven science that faces many obstacles to success, especially in the formation of ice crystals that damage the body's cells. Cameras follow cryonicists to document the processes they employ in prepping a body for freezing. On the more practical side, scientists are making real progress in preserving individual organs for later transplantation into sick individuals.
Since the advent of DNA analysis, many of the traditional forensic techniques have been shown to have a questionable scientific basis. This episode examines several long-trusted methods, including fire and firearm investigations, and tests to see how they hold up.
Incredible heat was needed to turn sand in an Egypt desert into yellow-green glass. Searching for clues as to what could generate such heat, scientists first looked at the 1908 Tunguska event in Siberia; the wide-spread destruction is believed to have been caused by an exploding asteroid. Viewing the 1994 collision of a comet with Jupiter provided scientists with answers. The huge fireball that it generated was validation of their theory that an asteriod impact some 30,000 ago could easily have turned an Earth desert into glass. AKA: Ancient Asteroid Apocalypse (Sky)
Dominant life forms have been wiped out before as our planet has a history of mass extinctions. A huge asteroid impact is credited with the passing of the dinosaurs, but what caused the others? This hour examines three of the major extinctions in the Earth's history and the possibility of another occurring.
Earthlings may one day develop the technology to visit other planets, but could we survive their hostile environments? This hour examines the extreme surface conditions of the planets within our solar system, as well as some that lie beyond.
Our planet Earth is teeming with life. To some, it's a miracle - but can science explain how it came into existence? Critics have attacked the theory of evolution for 150 years. They claim it is full of holes, and the gaps reveal the hand of an Intelligent Designer. Who's right? Naked Science investigates the most explosive science of them all and asks, was Darwin wrong?
Naked Science reports on the chilling evidence that many of the world's mountain glaciers are melting at a faster rate than any time in the past 150 years. A veteran Arctic and ice sheet expert in Greenland explains how the melting rate of the ice affects the rate of sea levels rising in the future. And the episode explains the devastation of that impact on the world.
Watch the Colorado River carve the Grand Canyon, Sahara sand dunes swallow whole cities, sheets of snow melt, crack and plunge from giant glaciers on a geological journey to see how these destructive forces constantly endlessly reshape our planet.
Some 75,000 years ago a super-eruption from the site of Lake Toba in Sumatra blasted out more than 200 cubic miles of ash and volcanic debris. Now, NGC investigates the devastating aftermath of one of the most powerful volcanoes of the last 2 million years, including the fascinating theory that it triggered a human genetic bottleneck - leaving a population of as little as a few thousand survivors to preserve the entire human race.
Scientists are only now starting to unravel the secrets of comets. Often referred to as dirty snowballs, they contain ice and elements from the very start of the universe. Some theorize that a comet, crashing into our planet, brought with it the organic material that started life on Earth. Spacecraft continues to offer new information on their makeup, from bringing back samples from a comet's tail to direct contact when a NASA-launched craft slammed into the comet Tempel-1.
It has long been said that the first Americans were hunters who arrived on the continent some 13,500 years ago via the Bering land bridge. This idea is now being challenged by scientists using modern, high-tech forensics to arrive at a new conclusion; the first residents may have arrived thousands of years earlier and had a more developed grasp of engineering that we had thought possible.
Great distances and dangerous environments make robotic spacecraft the best way for scientists to explore our solar system. Acting as our eyes and ears, these probes have revealed secrets about the distant planets and their moons, their surfaces, weather and environments.
Scientists monitoring global warming predict further melting of the polar icecaps. The effects of a rising sea level on the world's coastlines is investigated.
Scientists have long thought that dinosaurs were hurled toward extention after a huge meteor collided with Earth. Now, some theorize that a meteor impact may have given rise to the huge creatures.
Some 3.9 billion years ago, our solar system was assaulted by a gigantic asteroid storm. This episode examines how life on our planet survived and the chances of another such attack occurring.
Since the death of 1,700 people near a lake in Africa, scientists have uncovered a terrifying series of hazards in lakes across the world.
A volatile chain of volcanoes and faults ring the top of the Pacific Ocean. With more than one billion people potentially in harm's way, evidence suggests that this region is becoming more active. Earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions are being studied by scientists who hope to learn more about the processes at work before a devistating event happens.
With advanced technology in their hands, astronomers and scientists may now be capable of detecting extraterrestrial life in the universe. In fact, some think the proof may be found in as little as a decade. Astronomers involved in the effort, including those at SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence), discuss the possibilities and the likely spots for finding life outside of Earth.
At one time, America was bombarded by some of the most severe storms ever to hit the planet. Scientists wonder if hurricanes are increasing in intensity and perhaps becoming the monsters they once were. The effects of global warming on the severity of hurricanes, if there are any, are discussed.
More humans have traveled to the moon that have been to the ocean's floor. Virtually unexplored, the trenches trenches of the oceans could swallow Mt. Everest. Despite the crushing pressure, Earth's final frontier holds great potential for meeting the planet's energy needs and perhaps to cure diseases.
Do the sun's invisible cosmic rays influence our weather? Can solar winds impact Earth? Explore the ways fluctuations in the sun's energy influence our climate.
Thanks to new developments in the technology of astronomy, scientists have been able to collect new information, giving them clues to how our solar system was formed.
The famous telescope that orbits the Earth was initially considered a failure because of its long list of problems. The scientists who designed the device and those who ultimately fixed it discuss the project, as well as the surprising photos and information it has been able to collect about the universe.
The Grand Canyon is a natural wonder so large it can be seen from space. Examining the layers of rock exposed from centuries of of erosion, geologists trace the canyon back to its early days when the Colorado River first began to flow through the region.
Did the American Rockies rise faster than their Canadian counterpart? New evidence from fossilized leaves and pollen suggest just that. Explore the mysteries of these ancient mountains.
The shape of the North American continent has changed radically over millions of years. During the great Ice Age, glaciers carved out the Great Lakes; as the Earth's temperature rose, they filled with glacier melt. The Great Salt Lake is just a shadow of its former self. And as tectonic plates continue to move, America moves closer to Europe each year.
How did life begin? its one of the most fundamental and difficult questions that has challenged us for ages. Our planet is teaming with life, from the highest mountain to the deepest ocean; life is everywhere. But what was the firing pistol that started the evolutionary race? How did material go from non-living to alive?
Three million miles from earth lies a planet so small that even the most advanced telescopes. A dedicated core of scientists offer educated guesses as to the makeup and condition of Pluto, as well as discuss its qualifications to be counted as a planet. Meahwhile, the New Horizons space probe continues its nine year trek to the planet to finally reveal the secrets of the "planet".
After blasing off from Earth on 8/4/2007, NASA's Phoenix Lander is scheduled to enter Mars' atmosphere on 5/25/2008 and land on the polar ice-cap. If all goes well, the solar powered robot will extend its nearly eight foot scoop and dig into the ice amd soil, seaching for the building blocks of life: carbon, nitrogen and, most importantly, water. Phoenix's goal is to prove that life either was, or perhaps is, posssible on the red planet. If it succeeds, it will change our understanding of life in the universe and its uniqueness to our planet.
NASA's Cassini spacecraft, launched in 1977, used the gravitational pull of Venus to act as a sling shot to travel the 2 billion miles to Saturn. Its arrival in 2004 allowed an unprecedented study of the planet's mystical rings and details of what lies below Saturn's seemingly smooth exterior. What has been learned so far (the probe continues to orbit and study) is analyzed, as well as information gleaned from the Huygens probe which landed on its moon Titan.
Cosmic debris is an ever present threat to humanity, but what are we doing to protect ourselves? Here we look at new research to determine exactly what the threat is and what we are doing to safeguard our future in the face of the dangers from space. Most of the huge 'dinosaur killing' asteroids have been identified and tracked but the possibility of them impacting is extremely rare. The newly identified danger is the much more numerous and smaller asteroids.
This is the story of mankind's first major ocean crossing the groundbreaking first arrival in Australia. It holds the secrets as to how and why modern humans were able to dominate this planet and beyond. In this one hour film experts explore the mysteries that surround this historic journey - how and when it was achieved, was it a purposeful mission or simply an accident and exactly what it is different about modern humans that give us the capabilities to go where no man has gone before
The idea of traveling through time has long been a fanciful dream of scientists and fiction writers. Since determining that we live on a space-time continuium that can be warped by gravity, thinkers have pondered how to make that happen. Now scientists are wondering if lasers would allow us to twist the fabric and make possible leaps forward and backward in time.
Since the formation of the planet, Earth's magnetic field has shifted poles thousands of times. The last time it happened, humans weren't around. Now with the field weakening, scientists believe another flip is near. Soon, several satellites will be launched with magnetometers to detect even subtle changes, helping experts predict when the field may reverse.
13.7 Billion years ago, there was absolutely nothing. No space, no time, and no matter. Then there was the Big Bang. Naked Science follows the first second of creation, when a minute speck of light appeared from nothing, expanded at unimaginable speed, and created everything we see in the Universe today.
It's perhaps the most renowned telescope in the world; responsible for unlocking many mysteries of the final frontier; and now it is in danger of being lost forever. The Hubble Space Telescope has explored the creation of stars and planets, the glory of supernovas and the formation of super massive black holes, charted dark matter and changed forever our understanding of reality itself. Now, it's spiraling toward the Earth, and astronauts are embarking on a dangerous mission to fix it. In Hubble's Amazing Universe, we'll glimpse the far ends of the universe as seen through the amazing Hubble Space Telescope, and meet one of the astronauts risking everything to save it.
Few scientists like to predict the future. But geographer Chris Scotese has drawn a map of Earth 250 million years from now. This supercontinent is a place of wild extremes. In this one hour program scientists such as climatologist Dr Paul Valdes, atmospheric scientist George Bryan and paleobiologist Bruce Tiffney predict what life might be like on a future Earth. But other scientists believe a future single landmass world could sow the seeds of destruction for all life on Earth and the formation of a scorched and barren planet in its place.
It looks like Superman's fortress. Hidden deep beneath the surface of the Earth is one of the greatest natural marvels on the planet: a giant crystal cave with crystals up to 36 feet long and weighing 55 tons. But this scorching cavern could kill humans after just 15 minutes of exposure. Follow an international team of scientists as they don high-tech protective gear to safely unlock the secrets of the crystal cave. They'll attempt to answer the questions, What are the crystals made of? How did they reach such superheroic proportions? And is there life here?
This episode concentrates on how the universe was made in the Big Bang and how scientists predict it could end similarly as it continues to expand. Several theories are covered including the "Big Crunch" where the universe shrinks back to its original size, and the "Big Chill" with the universe slowly freezing to death.
It's widely believed that the awesome Aztec civilization was wiped out during the 1500s by diseases introduced by Spanish Conquistadores. Eighty percent of that Central Mexican population died in the devestating epidemics that followed their arrival. Research by a pair of scientists, however, suggests that their fate was not a result of visitors from the New World. If their conclusions are correct, the same ting that killed the Aztecs could happen again in this century.
Solar storms, disruptions of the complex magnetic fields on the Sun, cause serious problems on Earth. One storm approximately 150 years ago fried telegraph lines around the world. Another in 1989 resulted in a massive power blackout in Canada. Implementing a Japanese satellite trained on the Sun's surface, scientists are hoping they can predict when and where the next big one will erupt.
The hardest known substance on Earth is known for its value and beauty. Scientists believe diamonds could also hold incredible possibilities for the future. Their incredible durability and their unique properties could revolutionize everything from computer chips to space explorations. All diamonds, however, contain minor flaws. What science must do is create a perfect "super diamond".
Naked Science examines different theories on the origins of Earth's water, fueling the debate over water on other planets and the likelihood of alien life. When the Earth was being formed, it was too hot to include water in the mix. Scientists came to believe that the liquid covering most of our planet's surface was brought here via comets. Recent research reveals that the moisture held by comets varies somewhat from the liquid that now fills our oceans, so where else could the water have come from? New theories incorporating different sources have been proposed.
18,000 years ago there was a sudden change in climate which ends a global freeze which had lasted for several thousands of years. Melting ice caps drive up sea levels to create coastlines we recognise today and great glaciers thaw dramatically to re-sculpture the landscape. A mass extinction took place and as the human race adapted to these breath taking changes to their familiar environment, the seeds of our modern society were sown. The Worlds climate changed very quickly, with dramatic consequences for all life on the planet. Today our world is heating up at a similar rate what can the lessons of the past teach us about surviving our future?
The traditional thinking said that as the sun aged and its gravitation pull weakened, the Earth would gradually slip away and meet its end. Using cutting edge models, experts in climatology, biology, geology and astronomy are able to project millions, perhaps billions, of years into the future. They conjecture that supercontinents will form and then splinter, the oceans will float into space, and all life will become extinct from the planet.
The Galileo probe was the first craft to orbit an outer planet, making incredible discoveries about Jupiter, the liquid and gas ball that's 90,000 miles across. It found evidence of liquid water on Europa, one of the planet's 63 moons, and intriguing motions underneath Jupiter's surface raised speculation of possible life. This episode looks below the clouds to discover what is happening on the giant planet.
Dramatic new evidence from the star Mira shows as never before a brief but extremely significant moment in the death of a star. It confirms our worst fears for planet Earth -- and all life on it -- when our own sun reaches the same point. In this Naked Science special we find out about all the latest science designed to save our planet and ourselves.
Astronomers continue to study black holes to understand what role they play in the universe. Scientists understand that their incredible pull can swallow nearby stars and entire galaxies and that they warp time and space. Investigators use the equations of Einstein and theories of Hawking to figure out what the inside of a black hole looks like and what time, place, or dimension lies on the other side. AKA Monster of the Milky Way AKA Cosmic Monsters
Fourteen thousand years ago, a thick ice sheet a mile deep covered the continent of North America. Concealed beneath this vast expanse of ice, one of the worlds greatest geological mysteries, The Great Lakes, were forming. The Great Lakes are the worlds largest fresh water system but how these Great Lakes formed is still a mystery that scientists are trying to figure out. Many theories abound as to what gouged out the depths of these lakes. Were the deepest lake basins formed by the formidable grinding powers of a giant glacier? Or were they the result of an almighty comet crashing through the atmosphere and exploding about the site of the lakes? Naked Science explores all the possibilities of how these vast inland seas of blue gold were formed.
The Earth is built to last. It is 4.5 billion years old. It has taken more devastating asteroid hits in its lifetime than you've had hot dinners, and it still orbits happily around the sun. But physics is a curious thing and it can harness devastating power -- enough even to destroy the world. Naked Science will analyze antimatter, black holes and even more amazing means of destruction -- and the havoc they could wreak on a planet. So strap in, buckle up, and enjoy the ride to doomsday.
In a subterranean journey below the Earth's surface, scientists discover such phenomena as life in the crust and what is behind the San Andreas Fault and massive earthquakes, as well as how diamonds travel through the earth.
Hurricanes are one of the most destructive weather events to strike our planet and have the same power as a nuclear weapon. Naked Science travels to the heart of a hurricane to understand how these violent winds are formed and the devastation they inflict on the communities they strike
Tornados are one of the most destructive forces of the planets with winds at 300 mile an hour. They can destroy buildings and hurl cars hundreds of feet through the air. Every year tornadoes decimate communities around the world killing hundreds of people. On February 5th 2008, 57 people lost their lives as 87 tornadoes devastated 5 states. It was Americas deadliest tornado outbreak in nearly a quarter of a century. Earth Investigated deconstructs a tornado to learn how they form and how the develop such ferocious winds.
Millions of years ago, Venus and Earth cut similar figures. Roughly the same size and about the same distance from the sun, their respective evolutions could have followed similar paths. But today, Venus is a seething vision of Hell, its battery-acid atmosphere and incessant, hurricane-force winds masking a blistering volcanic surface. Some scientists wonder if it is a harbinger of whats in store for Earth. Thanks to the European Space Agency, Venus Express the most sophisticated satellite ever to visit the planet is orbiting Earths estranged twin, gathering the data we need to figure out why Venus went bad. Could our home planet be hurtling towards a similar fate? And could the hostile Venusian environment, now seemingly devoid of biologys most fundamental ingredient water yet harbour life?
Secret World of Fireworks explores the closely held secrets, recipes, and techniques from the world of pyrotechnic showmen. National Geographic takes a behind the scenes look into this exclusive world with unique access from Zambelli Internationale of New Castle, Pennsylvania - Americas First Family of Fireworks - along with rocket scientists and chemists from Los Alamos, New Mexico.
NASA says that large meteors -- several hundred to a few thousand feet wide -- hit the Earth every 50 to 100 thousand years. Dr. Ted Bryant and his colleagues disagree; they think such massive impacts happen much more often. And this group of scientists may have found signs that a meteor hit the ocean and produced a mega-tsunami that devastated Australias coastline -- only 500 years ago. National Geographic joins the team as they scour the coastline and the ocean floor trying to prove that cosmic impacts, and the mega-tsunamis that result, have happened far more frequently, and much more recently, than anyone ever thought.
From the Grand Canyon to the Rocky Mountains, Naked Science sheds new light on geological events that shaped the most iconic landscapes of the American West. In Washington State, scientists unearth new evidence confirming that a devastating mega-flood created the unique, scarlike features of the Channeled Scablands. In Colorado's San Juan range of the Rocky Mountains, researchers explore the mysteries behind what may have been the Earth's largest volcanic eruption.
An insider's look at NASA's Constellation program which hopes to establish a human outpost on the moon by 2020.
Stephen Hawking is one of the worlds most famous scientists. But ALS, also known as Lou Gehrigs Disease, has left him almost totally paralysedand it is progressing. Unable to walk, talk, or write, his only way of communicating is through a computer program that turns a small movement of a finger or the blink of an eye, into words from a vocal synthesizer. But Hawking remains determined to discover a theory of everything, a complete set of rules for the Universe. Where did the Universe come from and where is it going? What is the nature of time? Will it ever come to an end? This programme will explore Hawkings major contributions to the understanding of our Universe - from his revolutionary proof that our Universe originated in a Big Bang; to his ground breaking discovery that Black Holes are not completely black, but rather emit radiation and eventually evaporate and disappear, to his insights on string theory. Will he unlock the secret of creation before his time runs out?
65 million years ago an asteroid hit the Earth and wiped out the dinosaurs, but no one has ever known where the asteroid came from or how it killed off nearly three quarters of all life on Earth. This Naked Science episode uncovers alarming new evidence that the dinosaurs were doomed 100 million years before this catastrophic event. Following a group of maverick scientists, Incinerator Earth reveals what really happened; how life on Earth nearly came to an end; and what might happen if an 8-mile-diameter asteroid struck us again.
Weekly earthquakes began rattling Reno, Nevada in 2008. Soon, several tremors strong enough to be felt were happening each day. The frequency soon escalated until hundred had been recorded. Seismologists have been monitoring the swarm and wondering if this is all building up to one major quake and the destruction of the city.
This episode examines the effects of a hypothetical radiological attack from a car bomb on a major U.S. city. The purpose is to give useful information in the event that such an event should occur. The stories of several characters are told to dramatize the effects on various types of people: those responding in the "hot zone", a person near to the blast whose symptoms develop over time, a pregnant woman who must evacuate, and investigators who comb through debris to determine who set the blast.
Last year, for the first time in the history of space exploration, scientists spotted and tracked an asteroid on a collision course with Earth. About the size of a truck, the asteroid slammed into the Nubian Desert in Sudan, in nearly the exact spot and only a few seconds from the time scientists had predicted. Now, together with NASA scientists, NAKED SCIENCE joins researchers as they examine the remnants of the asteroid to unlock the clues to help us prevent--or simply survive--future incidents. Read more: http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/series/naked-science/4652/Overview#ixzz0h2O4AWhe
Overlooking the picturesque city of Napels, Italy is the active volcano Vesuvius. Its history includes hundreds of eruptions, the most well-known being the eruption in 79 A.D. that wiped Pomeii off of the map. Scientists have no doubt it will erupt again and will cause even more death and destruction as the area's population continues to grow. Their job now is to try and predict when the inevitable will happen.
France's Lascaux region is home to the famous caves decorated with drawings by prehistoric man. Scientists and historians have long though they represented the simple concerns of the people of that time: hunting and gathering, for example. Now, some scientists believe the drawings represent much more than that; they believe they show an advanced knowledge of the night skies and of the stars which moved through the skies.
Archaeologists at Denali Nation Park have unearthed evidence of hunter-gathers who inhabited the area 14,000 years ago. Tools, weapons, hundreds of artifacts and human remains have been revealed. Receding glaciers in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve have yielded beautifully preserved human remains. Scientists try to determine how these early inhabitants were able to survive Alaska's harsh environment.
Each year, the moon moves an inch and one half farther away from Earth and is gaining momentum. The gravity it exerts on our planet acts as a stabilization mechinism, allowing for a consistent range of temperatures, seasons and days. If the moon moves just ten percent farther, it will cause unbelievable disaster for our planet, as Earth tips up to 90 degrees on its axis.
There are numerous theories about how life began on Earth. One thought is that it sprang up in the warm waters of a pond. Another suggests it arrived via comets. A different theory says life sprang from lightening and volcanoes. Scientists demonstrate that a spark of electricity applied to a primordial soup forms amino acids--the building blocks of life.
Until recently, there was nothing that could be done about natural disasters like super-volcanic eruptions, meteors striking Earth, and severe hurricanes. Now, both science and government are looking at possible game-changing options that include giant space mirrors, hurricane-draining pumps and lasers to save people and the planet.
Renowned NASA scientists, planet-hunters and astronomers reveal emerging methods of finding earthlike planets and alien life and look at possible future techniques, including fiber-optic probing and interstellar travel powered by light at warp speeds. Also, get an inside look at the $50 million Allen Telescope Array in northern California designed to hear from extraterrestrials. Could our time alone in the universe be coming to an end?
The famous explosion that took place in Siberia early in the 20th century, known as the Tunguska Event, obliterated everything within thousands of square miles. It was so intense that the skies of Europe were lit for several nights. The debate continues over its cause: meteor, comet, or volcanic gasses?
With hundreds of satellites in orbit, the past 50 years have provided us with a remarkable new understand of our planet. Their ability to see Earth from such a vantage point has given us answers to some of Earth's most puzzling mysteries and a chance to see its changes, from global warming to a simple passing of the seasons.
Navigating your way around the gaseous giant would be quite an accomplishment. The planet's rings are made of rocky and icy debris, and there are move than 60 moons to dodge. This episode presents a CGI tour of the planet.
The eruption of Iceland's Eyjafjallajokull volcano on April 14, 2010 was massive, sending a plume of ash 30,000 feet into the air. The result had both local and international effects including massive flooding, evacuations, and a halt to air travel in Europe for days. This episode looks at the volcano's behavior in the days leading up to the event and the explosion itself. The question arises about what effect this eruption might have on nearby Katla volcano, which holds the potential for even more destruction.
These massive walls of water are responsible throughout history for massive death and destruction. Civilizations have been destroyed by the unannounced arrival of waves reaching as high as a skyscraper. Dr. Iain Stewart hosts this telling of little-known 10 stories of tsunamis.
Dead Tired uncovers research exploring whether tiredness may lead to heart attack, diabetes, obesity, and depression. In a unique TV experiment, witness what happens to a healthy 25-year old when he cuts back his sleep from eight to three hours a night for one week. The results are shocking! He loses lucidity, dreams whilst awake and drives a car while fast asleep!
Cameras offer a rare look inside the Navy's latest weapon in the fight against terrorism: the USS Florida, a guided missile submarine. In a Joint Operations mission, the sub smuggles Navy SEALS ashore to identify a terrorist location and the use shipboard guided missiles to destroy the target. The technology on the sub allows it to operate quieter and stay underwater longer than previous ships.
This program looks at the remarkable occurrence of the total solar eclipse over Easter Island on July 11, 2010. The program looks at the science of the sun as it is revealed via the eclipse phenomenon and then takes us "near live" to the actual event as the film will be aired domestically only a few hours after it takes place there.
As the sun continues to age, it becomes increasingly hot and begins to expand, eventually swallowing up Earth. The temperatures on our planet will rise, turning the third rock from the sun into a scorched and uninhabitable wasteland. The changes our planet will undergo are depicted.
This episode provides answers to the unlikely question of what would happen to our planet if it should stop spinning. Day and night would each last for six months on alternating sides of the planet; sea levels at the equator would drop; the atmosphere would disappear and life as we know it would not survive.
Have you ever seen lightning strike from the ground to the sky or float in midair? Spectacular and exotic forms of this natural phenomenon are slowed down on film to reveal minute detail. Luminous spheres that linger in airplanes are recreated. We will show you how rockets launched into storm clouds coax lightning down to earth. Naked Science: Lightning Chasers illuminates secrets of nature's most striking
Some believe that man's insatiable desire to alter his environment is actually causing natural disasters. Urban sprawl perhaps strengthened a tornado in Atlanta; massive amounts of coal and water removal may have triggered Australia's strongest-ever earthquake; natural gas drilling causing a mud volcano in Java; these specific examples examined.
With most of the planet covered by oceans and overcrowding an issue on land, the time may be right to turn the science fiction idea of living beneath the sea into a reality. This episode examines what it would take to construct and operate an undersea colony of 100 families. The technology that could make it happen is already being developed.
In July 2008, paleontologists Nadia Frobisch, Jorg Frobisch, and Lars Schmitz unearthed the nearly complete fossilized remains of a 35 foot, 240 million year old Ichthyosaur in Nevada's Augusta mountains. Scientists instantly knew this creature would have been the top predator of the oceans in its time. Now, the investigation begins into this unique creature as scientists attempt to understand where it fits in the evolutionary history of the first sea reptiles.
It may be the best documented meteorite fall in history. Scientists at the University of Western Ontario record a meteorite lighting up the Canadian skies one a Friday night. Using a network of cameras, radar and listening equipment they had aimed at the skies, they know where to hunt for the rock that entered our atmosphere from outer space.
Engineers wondered if a plane that operated solely on solar power could be built. Their efforts over a decade result in the Solar Impulse HB-SIA, the plane that triumphantly takes to the air. Making a 26-hour nonstop day-night-day flight climaxes the success of the Solar Impulse.
Over a century ago, sponge divers recovered an extremely complex mechanical device from a shipwreck. It was decades before they determined it's purpose, to accurately track the movement of the stars in the night sky. Dubbed the Antikythera mechanism (for the location of the shipwreck from which it came), the device is considered the world's first computer, developed by the Greeks around the 1st century B.C. Scientists continue to marvel at its intricate system of gears which rival that of the most complex Swiss watch.
We were all taught that dinosaurs were scaly creatures with skin like we're accustomed to seeing on reptiles. With the discovery of new fossils including feathered prehistoric beasts in China, scientists now believe they were wrong. Using computers to realize the new discoveries, Naked Science gives a more accurate look at the fathered monsters from the past.
The centuries-old Voynich manuscript has remained an enigma. Filled with bizarre drawings and written in a language that even the best cryptographers cannot decipher, the tome has remained a puzzling mystery. The efforts to decode the book and determine its unknown author continue.
The formation of one of nature's greatest wonders continues to be debated. Experts explore various theories as to how the Grand Canyon was formed, and how it continues to be shaped by natural forces.
The most unimaginable weather in our universe occurs at places other than on our planet. This episode imagines what would happen if those bizarre conditions were to manifest themselves on Earth.
At this very moment, you could be breathing the same oxygen molecule that Genghis Khan and George Washington did! NGC is putting a unique twist on history by retracing the extraordinary journey of a single molecule of oxygen an adventure that takes place over millions of years. The story begins with the birth of oxygen, moves on to photosynthesis, then travels through the age of the dinosaurs and follows the first steps of early man.
Parallel universes, strange hidden worlds, where an alternative reality exists have haunted science fiction for decades. Parallel universes sound like a myth, but a surprising number of leading scientists believe they are real. National Geographic delves into the mysterious science of other universes and discovers that many of physics most cherished theories actually predict that there are other universes beside our own. But what are they like? Could we ever visit them? And if we did, who or what would we meet? The reality is weirder than any science fiction.
Bryan Fry has always been intrigued with things that can kill you. Since surviving a near fatal rattlesnake bite this scientist, turned venom hunter, has made it his mission to seek out the worlds deadliest creatures. Each venom he collects may hold the secret to creating life-saving medicines. Now Bryan targets North America and three of its most toxic species.
Did ancient children play, learn and laugh the way children do today? A Moroccan skull, more than one hundred thousand years old, is revealed to be that of a 6-year-old child. Dental examinations confirm that the child lived and died well before the founding of modern religion, the construction of Egypt's pyramids and even the advent of agriculture. A scientific team works to decipher the mysteries of this lost child's life.
Superhuman capabilities like running faster than a speeding bullet or being more powerful than a locomotive could be available at the push of a button. NGC explores the latest in wearable mechanical getups, designed to duplicate human movement with enhanced strength and locomotion. See how these futuristic suits are being used for medical, military, industrial and recreational uses.
Life After Dinosaurs recreates the evolutionary history of mammals from the dinosaur age up to the appearance of the first humans to explore how the present ecosystem on this planet was formed and how remarkable the fact is that we exist now.
They were sent to Mars on a 90-day mission, but almost five years later the rovers Spirit and Opportunity have traveled farther, seen more, and survived longer than anyone imagined possible, earning a place among the most prolific explorers in history.